Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be an important tool for the treatment of kidney disease. Their mechanism of action is mainly due to a paracrine effect: following their administration in vivo (through an iv injection), mesenchymal stem cells migrate to damaged kidney tissue, where they produce an array of anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. These secreted biomolecules can alter the course of the injury, most probably through the activation of resident renal stem/progenitor cells, that in turn take place in a cascade of events in order to regenerate the injured kidney.

However the stem cells can only have a limited (transient) effect on the treatment of the injury, as they remain within the kidney for a limited amount of time. Ideally, if the process of homing of the cells was more efficient, they would remain into the injured kidney longer and their paracrine activity would be significantly accentuated leading theoretically to better results.

Theracell is in the process of developing novel therapies for the treatment of Cronic Kidney Disease. These therapies make use of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) and a special class of nanoparticles, referred to as Superparamagnetic Iron OxideNanoparticles (SPIONs).